After the promulgation of NDMO , a complete structure of disaster-fighting mechanism was established in the country. Now disaster management institutes are present at three levels in Pakistan: at national level, these are National Disaster Management Commission and National Disaster Management Authority; at provincial level, these are Provincial Disaster Management Commissions and Provincial Disaster Management Authorities; and at district level, these are District Disaster Management Authorities.
At all levels, the commission is the apex body on disaster management as it lays down policies, approves plans of the concerned governments and departments related; issues guidelines to the concerned governments and departments; arranges for, and oversees, the provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation measures, preparedness and response.
When massive earthquake jolted the length and breadth of Pakistan in , although, no specialized institution was present for disaster handling, yet the whole Pakistani nation and international community joined hands to help the affected populace.
Since their establishment through NDMO , the disaster management authorities in Pakistan have been leading the relief and rehabilitation activities across the country after any disaster struck the nation. They have undertaken indubitably commendable activities in alleviating the pains and sufferings of the disaster-struck people.
In addition to providing relief items, the DMAs perform many other functions for bringing ease in the life of those affected. Shifting of the injured to hospitals, evacuation of people from the vulnerable areas, repair of infrastructure damages, etc. Recommendations for Improvement.
First of all, statutory structure of disaster management in Pakistan needs to be improved. As disaster management is a provincial subject, all the provincial assemblies should enact laws keeping in view the peculiarities of their respective territories.danardono.com.or.id/libraries/2020-01-26/baro-smartphone-number-locate.php
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These laws should be followed by subordinate legislation in the form of rules and regulations, as no law can serve its purpose fully unless it is supported by a sound framework of rules and regulations. We need to realize that merely the establishment of legal framework cannot ensure the acquisition of targeted objectives and goals, and special attention will have to be given to the implementation of the disaster management laws in letter and spirit. The procedure of devising disaster management plans should be upgraded at all levels. Involvement of technical experts, standardization of the plans, coordination with all stakeholders and utilization of hazards maps are the measures which can certainly enhance the impact of disaster management plans.
Special attention should be directed to in-time formulation and wide circulation of these plans so that all the vulnerable could get sufficient time to take precautionary measures and all government functionaries could get clear idea of their responsibilities. For better provision of disaster-related services, coordination at all levels must be improved. At national, provincial and district levels, disaster management forums should be established under the umbrella of concerned DMAs.
These forums should provide a joint platform to all the national and international NGOs, government functionaries, media persons and the civil society to share their ideas regarding a collective and well-organized response to the disasters. The forum should also be used for the distribution of responsibilities among the organization in order to ensure more dexterous handling of the disasters.
The DMAs should ensure the availability of advanced rescue machineries and equipment and at such places from where they could be shifted to the disaster-hit points without any delay. Wheel dozers, trolley blades, excavators, rock drills, hydraulic cranes, air compressors and all such paraphernalia indispensable to successfully carrying out rescue operations, should be procured on immediate basis and a meticulous plan for ensuring their proper maintenance should also be devised.
Prior to the procurement, the DMAs should thoroughly study the hazard maps in order to ensure that the machinery being procured would be sufficient to cater for rescue needs. Similarly hazard mapping of all the vulnerable areas should also be conducted. Services of technical persons should be hired for the purpose.
All development activities in the districts should be carried out keeping in view their vulnerabilities to different sort of disasters as highlighted in the hazard maps. Advanced early warning systems are also required to be set up in Pakistan, particularly for the flood and earthquake forecast.
The systems, presently in place, do not provide a forecast that is early enough to adopt requisite precautionary measures. For this sake, Pakistan Meteorological Department needs to be invigorated. The staff of PMD should be given special trainings to enable them to perform their responsibilities more skilfully. Special focus should be on Disaster Risk Reduction instead of mere Disaster Management as minimizing the adverse effects of disasters can be more productive than responding to the miseries caused by it.
For the purpose, special emphasis should be laid on devising and implementing building codes, land-use regulations and city development plans. No new building construction or city development should be allowed unless it adheres to all the statutory requirements provided for creating resilience against the disasters.
Community sensitization can also be helpful in minimizing the disaster-related damages. Hectic campaigns should be launched through media and in educational institutes and people should be educated regarding the best-suited immediate response at the time of disaster. Climate change is casting its evil eye on the whole world and Pakistan is one of the worst-hit countries. Disasters have become a recurring feature here. Presence of a specialized institution for fighting the disasters was immensely imperative to the safety of people of Pakistan and thanks to Allah Almighty that a complete framework is now available in the country for the said purpose.
Every year, all tiers of disaster management authorities play a leading role in the mitigation of the effects of disaster and distribution of relief items in the disaster-hit areas. However, quite understandably, there is still enough room for improvement in the overall disaster-combating mechanism of the country. Some deficiencies will definitely come to an end with the passage of time, while for the rest some sincere and serious measures will have to be adopted.
Your email address will not be published. Different types of disasters A glimpse over the major disasters in Pakistan What is disaster management? Process of disaster management Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery and rehabilitation Reconstruction Legislative structure for disaster management in Pakistan Institutional structure for disaster management in Pakistan Contribution of disaster management institutions of Pakistan Recommendations for further improvement Conclusion Introduction Perhaps the punishment is not over yet.
Disasters and Their Impacts on Pakistan Since As regards the damage caused by disasters in Pakistan, the data maintained by National Disaster Management Authority NDMA reveals that since earthquake, floods and draughts have resulted in more than deaths and have inflicted injuries to over citizens while damaged nearly houses.
Process of Disaster Management 1. Mitigation The process of disaster management starts from mitigation. Preparedness Preparedness is aimed at achieving a satisfactory level of readiness to respond to any emergency through such programmes which strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of governments, organizations and communities. Response The aim of emergency response, the third step of the disaster management process, is to provide immediate assistance to maintain life, improve health and support the morale of the affected population.
Recovery As the emergency is brought under control, the process of recovery begins. Reconstruction Reconstruction involves repairing the damages to private properties and public infrastructure and undoing all the disaster effects. They tend to live in less safe environments and in less safe shelter. Shoddily-constructed slums are more vulnerable to earthquakes, landslides and flooding that the homes where the rich are more likely to live.
Natural disasters exacerbate existing gender inequalities and pre-existing vulnerabilities. The majority of those who die in natural disasters are women. Women also tend to have less access to essential resources for preparedness, mitigation, and rehabilitation. Assistance can often be discriminatory in impact even if not intended to be so. Government policies can reinforce social divisions.
The frequency and severity of sudden-onset natural disasters is increasing. Presently there are about natural disasters per year, affecting million people. This is double the number reported 20 years ago.
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In particular hydrometeorological events are increasing — most likely as the result of climate change. However, as our own Hurricane Katrina demonstrates, displacement can last a long time. It is estimated that about a quarter of those displaced by Hurricane Katrina have not returned. Do natural disasters contribute to conflict? Does the response to natural disasters help resolve conflicts? Or make them worse? There are cases where natural disasters occur in places where conflict has already disrupted the lives of people, for example, the Philippines, Iraq, Somalia, Kenya, Colombia, and Haiti.
For example, the Somali government is extremely weak controlling only a few blocks of the capital city as a result of long-standing conflict and thus unable to respond to either the drought or flooding which has occurred in its country. If there were no conflict in Somalia, it is more likely that both the state and community institutions would be better able to cope with the natural hazards, perhaps avoiding disasters all together.
Although the situations vary, the occurrence of a natural disaster in an area affected by on-going conflict can lead to:. Bush It seems to make intuitive sense to conclude that conflicts worsen the impact of natural disasters by weakening state, community and individual capacity to respond. There are surprisingly few long-term empirical studies on the relationship between conflict and natural disasters. Nel and Righarts looked at data for countries and other political entities for the period to and found that rapid-onset natural disasters significantly increase the risk of violent civil conflict both in the short and medium-term, specifically in low- and middle-income countries that have high inequality, mixed political regimes which are neither fully autocratic or democratic , and sluggish economic growth.
Disasters create grievances that lead to conflict by causing mass disruption, impacting individual behavior, community and political organizations, and the power relationships between individuals, groups, and the organizations that serve them. Crops are destroyed, giving rise to food shortages, famines, and localized conflicts over resources. As a disaster destroys many key social and political. In other words, it seems that particularly for developing countries with weak governments, a natural disaster can cause political instability.
Indeed, in countries such as Guatemala earthquake and Nicaragua earthquake , governments have fallen largely because of popular discontent over the way the disaster response was organized. Indeed, the poor response of the West Pakistan government to the typhoon in East Pakistan was a principal reason for the ensuing war which resulted in Bangladeshi independence the following year.
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One of the most interesting comparisons of the relationship between conflict and natural is disasters is the effect of the tsunamis on conflicts in Sri Lanka and Aceh, Indonesia. At the time the tsunamis struck, both countries were mired in protracted conflicts. In Aceh, the response to the tsunami seems to have contributed to the resolution of a long-term simmering conflict between Gerakan Aceh Merdeka GAM and the government. What made the difference? As is usual in these situations, there are many factors which are responsible for both the conflict and for its resolution.
Disaster management in pakistan essay
Bauman et al. The government lacked the capacity to rebuild Aceh without international support and was forced to allow international actors into the region — which had previously been largely denied because of the conflict. The international presence provided a sense of security to the population and coupled with both strong international support and committed political leadership, peace negotiations were re-started. This agreement ended nearly 30 years of conflict which had caused 15, deaths and displaced up to ,, people. In comparison, when the tsunami struck Sri Lanka, the peace process was similarly stalled, the LTTE held a strong position and the tsunami itself affected the Tamil and Sinhalese communities differently.
But the majority — though by no means all — of those affected by the tsunami were Sinhalese living in the South.